Research and Information

Building a strong evidence base on male health is a priority area identified in the National Male Health Policy to inform policies, programs and initiatives.

Page last updated: 30 October 2015

Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health

The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health, also known as the Ten to Men Study, is a longitudinal population-based study which focuses on building a strong evidence base in male health. The Study will inform policies, programs and initiatives that promote health and support to males.

The Ten to Men Study is examining the health and lifestyles of around 16,000 Australian males aged 10 to 55 years across three age groups: boys aged 10 to 14 years; young males aged 15-17 years; and adult males aged 18-55 years. Parents of boys aged 10 to 14 years are also being interviewed.

The Ten to Men Study will provide a data and information resource that can be drawn on by Australian governments, researchers, service providers and communities. The Study is designed to build understanding of the many factors that enhance or inhibit good health in boys and men.

Aims and objectives of the Ten to Men Study

The objectives of the Study are to:
  • Examine male health and its key determinants including social, economic, environmental and behavioural factors that affect the length and quality of life of Australian males;
  • Address a range of key research questions about the health of Australian males, including their health behaviours and risk factors (including risky behaviours), key life transition points, social and economic environments in which they work and live together with their use of health and other services;
  • Identify policy opportunities for improving the health and wellbeing of males and providing support for males at key life stages, particularly those at risk of poor health; and
  • Inform our understanding of strengths in male health.
The Study is aiming to:
  • Examine the social, psychological, biological and environmental determinants of good health in males, including causal links between the health of males and these determinants;
  • Advance understanding of the factors that enhance or inhibit good physical and mental health for males with particular focus on gaps in existing knowledge;
  • Document health service usage through participant self-reporting and through linkage with a range of administrative data sets including the Medicare Benefits Schedule, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme and other relevant health data sets over time;
  • Include a focus on life stages and key life transition points/events;
  • Examine the social determinants of health such as socio-economic status, education, employment, income, location, cultural background and social support, and examine how these determinants may impact on males’ physical and mental health;
  • Consider the impact of sex, gender and age on males’ attitudes towards their health and health behaviours including help seeking and health outcomes;
  • Include a focus on intergenerational difference and explore how the nature of social, economic, environmental and technological change since the birth of older males in the Study has impacted on different age group living in different social contexts; and
  • Assess the impact of changes in health policy and practice on the health of Australian males.
The Study commenced in 2011 and the first period of Wave 1 survey recruitment ran from October 2013 to June 2014. Preparation for the first follow-up data collection (Wave 2) commenced in the second half of 2014, including developing data collection methodology, revising study instruments, developing testing protocols for instrument and pilot testing and seeking ethics approvals. Wave 2 data collection is planned for 2016.

Who is involved in the Study?

Ten to Men is being undertaken by researchers at the Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne.

Professor Dallas English, Director of the Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Professor Jane Pirkis, Director of the Centre for Mental Health are the Chief Investigators of the Ten to Men Study.

The Study is supported by a number of advisory groups including the Steering Committee, the External Scientific Advisory Group and the Community Reference Group.

The Ten to Men Study website is available on the Ten to Men website (


The Ten to Men Study is funded by the Department of Health under the Health Social Surveys Fund (HSSF). The key objective of the fund is to establish a comprehensive evidence base to underpin the development, implementation and evaluation of relevant health policies.

The Ten to Men Study will complement existing longitudinal studies occurring in Australia including the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health which has been collecting information on Australian women since 1995 and the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children which is a major study following the development of 10,000 Australian children and families that commenced in 2004.

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Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: male health bulletins

The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare is a major national agency set up by the Australian Government to provide reliable, regular and relevant information and statistics on Australia's health and welfare.

The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare is drawing on a wide range of reliable national data sources to present a ‘snapshot’ of the health and wellbeing of Australian males. A suite of male health bulletins will be published to provide up-to-date data for health professionals, academics, program designers/policy makers, key stakeholders and the general public.

The Health of Australia's Males, the first in the series of male health bulletins, examines attitudes to health issues, rates of injury, illness and mortality and use of health services among Australian males. It provides a summary of the health and wellbeing of the Australian male population by outlining the lifestyle factors influencing male health, the health status of Australian males and access to health services. Some key findings outlined in The Health of Australia’s Males include:
  • Males born between 2007-2009 can expect to live 24 years longer than males born between 1901-1910.
  • In 2007-08, around two-thirds of adult males (aged 18 years or over) and one-quarter (aged 5-17 years) were overweight or obese.
  • In 2007, nearly half of males aged 16–85 years had experienced a mental health disorder in their lifetime. This includes males with anxiety, affective and/or substance use disorders.
  • In 2009, nearly one-fifth of Australian males had a disability. This includes males with a mild to profound core activity limitation, school or employment restriction or with a non-specific limitation or restriction.
  • In 2007–08, nearly one-third of males had a chronic health condition. This includes males with asthma, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, heart and circulatory diseases or osteoporosis.
  • In 2008–09, 16% of males did not use any Medicare services.
A summary Report Profile has also been released.

The Health of Australia’s Males: A focus on five population groups is the second in the series of male health bulletins. It examines the distinct health profiles of five male population groups at risk of poor health: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males, males living in regional and remote areas, males living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, males born overseas and older males. This bulletin is structured to present a separate chapter for each specific population group and provides information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors, health status and health service use.

Key findings from the second male health bulletin include:
  • Older males (aged 65 and over) are living longer than ever before, and generally have fewer risk factors such as obesity and tobacco smoking than younger males. As age increases, there are some risk factors and health conditions that also increase. In 2007-08, males aged 65 and over were more likely to be physically inactive than younger males and the rate of physical inactivity increased with age.
  • In 2005-2007, male Indigenous life expectancy at birth was expected to be 67.2 years (11.5 years less than for non-Indigenous males).
  • Males born overseas generally enjoy better health than other males. In 2005-2007, males born overseas had higher mortality from lung cancer (5% higher) and diabetes (10% higher).
  • In 2007-2008, males living in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged areas were nearly twice as likely to be obese than those in the least disadvantaged areas.
  • In 2005-2007, compared with males living in major cities, those living in remote areas were around twice as likely to die from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and suicide.
The Health of Australia’s Males: from birth to young adulthood (0-24 years), is the third in the series of male health bulletins. It focuses on health conditions and risk factors that are age-specific (such as congenital anomalies) and those where large sex differences are observed (such as injury).

Key findings from the third male health bulletin include:
  • In 2009-2011, male babies could expect to live to the age of 79.7, nearly 5 years less than female babies for the same year (84.2). Male babies are also more likely than female babies to be born before 37 weeks gestation, have a high birthweight, or have a congenital anomaly.
  • In 2010, 6% of males aged 14-19 smoked tobacco daily, compared with about 8% of females the same age and 43% of males aged 14-19 were at risk of injury resulting from a single occasion of drinking alcohol.
  • In 2009, about 8% of males aged 0-24 were estimated to have a disability in Australia. This was lower than males aged 25 or over (23%) and higher than females aged 0-24 (6%).
  • In 2006-2008, the leading cause of cancer among males aged 0-24 was lymphoid leukaemias, with 353 males newly diagnosed in that period (3.3 new cases per 100,000 males).
The Health of Australia’s Males: 25 years and over, is the fourth and final bulletin in the series. It continues and completes the life course by focussing on males aged 25 and over.

Key findings from the final male health bulletin include:
  • In 2011, males aged 25 could expect to live an additional 55.6 years, to age 80.6. Males aged 65 in 2011 could expect to live to 84.1, and those aged 85 could expect to live to 91.2.
  • In 2008-2010, coronary heart disease was the leading cause of death among males aged 25 and over, accounting for more than 36,000 deaths, at a rate of 170 per 100,000 males.
  • In 2011, 60% of males aged 25 and over were married, 25% had never married, 12% were divorced or separated and 3% were widowed.
  • In 2011, an estimated 100,700 males aged 65 and over had dementia – 34% of all males and females with dementia.
  • In 2009, prostate cancer was the leading cancer diagnosed among males aged 25 and over, with more than 19,400 new cases at a rate of 273 per 100,000 males. Testicular cancer was ranked twentieth, at a rate of 9 per 100,000 males.
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How can copies of the bulletins be accessed ?

Copies of the bulletins can be ordered free of charge from National Mailing and Marketing, via email at: NMM at National Mailing

Please quote item numbers when ordering from National Mailing and Marketing. They are:

RG0017 - The Health of Australia’s Males (bulletin 1)
RG0013 – The Health of Australia’s Males – Report Profile
RG0030 – The Health of Australia’s Males: a focus on five population groups (bulletin 2)
RG0032 – The Health of Australia’s Males: from birth to young adulthood (0-24 years)
RG0033 – The Health of Australia’s Males: 25 years and over

A summary Report Profile has also been released for bulletin 2 and can be downloaded from the AIHW website

Each bulletin and report profiles may be downloaded from the : AIHW website.